Copyright | (c) The University of Glasgow 2001 |
---|---|
License | BSD-style (see the file libraries/base/LICENSE) |
Maintainer | libraries@haskell.org |
Stability | provisional |
Portability | portable |
Safe Haskell | Trustworthy |
Language | Haskell2010 |
Functors: uniform action over a parameterized type, generalizing the
map
function on lists.
Documentation
class Functor f where Source #
The Functor
class is used for types that can be mapped over.
Instances of Functor
should satisfy the following laws:
fmap id == id fmap (f . g) == fmap f . fmap g
The instances of Functor
for lists, Maybe
and IO
satisfy these laws.
Instances
Functor [] # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Maybe # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor IO # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Par1 # | |
Functor NonEmpty # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ReadP # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor ReadPrec # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor Down # | Since: base-4.11.0.0 |
Functor Product # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Sum # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Dual # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor Last # | |
Functor First # | |
Functor STM # | Since: base-4.3.0.0 |
Functor Handler # | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Functor Identity # | Since: base-4.8.0.0 |
Functor ZipList # | |
Functor ArgDescr # | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Functor OptDescr # | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Functor ArgOrder # | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Functor Option # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Last # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor First # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Max # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Min # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor Complex # | |
Functor (Either a) # | Since: base-3.0 |
Functor (V1 :: * -> *) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor (U1 :: * -> *) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor ((,) a) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (ST s) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (Proxy :: * -> *) # | Since: base-4.7.0.0 |
Arrow a => Functor (ArrowMonad a) # | Since: base-4.6.0.0 |
Defined in Control.Arrow fmap :: (a0 -> b) -> ArrowMonad a a0 -> ArrowMonad a b Source # (<$) :: a0 -> ArrowMonad a b -> ArrowMonad a a0 Source # | |
Monad m => Functor (WrappedMonad m) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a -> b) -> WrappedMonad m a -> WrappedMonad m b Source # (<$) :: a -> WrappedMonad m b -> WrappedMonad m a Source # | |
Functor (ST s) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (Arg a) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (Rec1 f) # | |
Functor (URec Char :: * -> *) # | |
Functor (URec Double :: * -> *) # | |
Functor (URec Float :: * -> *) # | |
Functor (URec Int :: * -> *) # | |
Functor (URec Word :: * -> *) # | |
Functor (URec (Ptr ()) :: * -> *) # | |
Functor f => Functor (Alt f) # | |
Functor (Const m :: * -> *) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Arrow a => Functor (WrappedArrow a b) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Defined in Control.Applicative fmap :: (a0 -> b0) -> WrappedArrow a b a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 Source # (<$) :: a0 -> WrappedArrow a b b0 -> WrappedArrow a b a0 Source # | |
Functor ((->) r :: * -> *) # | Since: base-2.1 |
Functor (K1 i c :: * -> *) # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :+: g) # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :*: g) # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Sum f g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Product f g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
Functor f => Functor (M1 i c f) # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (f :.: g) # | |
(Functor f, Functor g) => Functor (Compose f g) # | Since: base-4.9.0.0 |
($>) :: Functor f => f a -> b -> f b infixl 4 Source #
Flipped version of <$
.
Examples
Replace the contents of a
with a constant Maybe
Int
String
:
>>>
Nothing $> "foo"
Nothing>>>
Just 90210 $> "foo"
Just "foo"
Replace the contents of an
with a constant
Either
Int
Int
String
, resulting in an
:Either
Int
String
>>>
Left 8675309 $> "foo"
Left 8675309>>>
Right 8675309 $> "foo"
Right "foo"
Replace each element of a list with a constant String
:
>>>
[1,2,3] $> "foo"
["foo","foo","foo"]
Replace the second element of a pair with a constant String
:
>>>
(1,2) $> "foo"
(1,"foo")
Since: base-4.7.0.0
(<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b infixl 4 Source #
An infix synonym for fmap
.
The name of this operator is an allusion to $
.
Note the similarities between their types:
($) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b (<$>) :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b
Whereas $
is function application, <$>
is function
application lifted over a Functor
.
Examples
Convert from a
to a Maybe
Int
using Maybe
String
show
:
>>>
show <$> Nothing
Nothing>>>
show <$> Just 3
Just "3"
Convert from an
to an Either
Int
Int
Either
Int
String
using show
:
>>>
show <$> Left 17
Left 17>>>
show <$> Right 17
Right "17"
Double each element of a list:
>>>
(*2) <$> [1,2,3]
[2,4,6]
Apply even
to the second element of a pair:
>>>
even <$> (2,2)
(2,True)
void :: Functor f => f a -> f () Source #
discards or ignores the result of evaluation, such
as the return value of an void
valueIO
action.
Examples
Replace the contents of a
with unit:Maybe
Int
>>>
void Nothing
Nothing>>>
void (Just 3)
Just ()
Replace the contents of an
with unit,
resulting in an Either
Int
Int
:Either
Int
'()'
>>>
void (Left 8675309)
Left 8675309>>>
void (Right 8675309)
Right ()
Replace every element of a list with unit:
>>>
void [1,2,3]
[(),(),()]
Replace the second element of a pair with unit:
>>>
void (1,2)
(1,())
Discard the result of an IO
action:
>>>
mapM print [1,2]
1 2 [(),()]>>>
void $ mapM print [1,2]
1 2